Keeping your dependencies up-to-date

As the business requirements grow, so does the list of dependencies. Managers ask for a new feature, you just composer-require this thing and that other thing, and wire it into the application. But how do you keep track of new features in the dependencies? Or bugfixes? Or, most importantly, security patches?!

Go and try running composer show | wc -l on your projects. I've done that on some of mine, and the average number of dependencies tends to near one hundred for not-so-big applications. One hundred. That's a lot. That basically gives you a guarantee of bugs and if you're unlucky, maybe even security issues.

And frankly, how often do you update them? Not just the one that has a shiny new feature you want to use, but all of them? Or, in the first place, how do you even find out that you should update them? How do you learn about new releases?

We've been discussing this question recently and found out that it's a task best left to Composer itself. It has a useful command that "shows a list of installed packages that have updates available, including their current and latest versions":

$ composer outdated

While it is handy, it's also uncomfortable to have to run the command manually. Depending on other developers (where "other" includes the future you) to call this periodically and update the dependencies is, let's admit it, naïve.

I know! Let's put it into a job on the CI server! It will keep track of the outdated dependencies and give us a hint when there is an update ready. The outdated command even has a few useful flags for this usage:

$ composer outdated --minor-only --strict

With the --minor-only flag, the command only reports new available minor and patch releases. This is useful because major version bumps usually signify backwards-incompatible changes in the code, and such update might take considerably more time, while minor and patch version updates should be pretty much effortless.

There is also a --direct flag which instructs Composer to report available updates only for your direct dependencies. This makes sense in a way, because updating indirect dependencies is not always as straightforward - there is an extra layer between your application and that dependency, and that extra layer might enforce its own constraints on the indirect dependency version. However, that is usually a problem only with major version bumps, therefore I believe you don't need the --direct flag if you use --minor-only.

Finally, the --strict flag means that the command shall finish with a non-zero exit code if there are outdated dependencies, causing the CI job to fail. This is most important, because otherwise you would have little motivation to take a look at the job output. But it's also tricky:

Imagine you are fixing a critical bug and you want to get it to production pronto, but then the CI server says "no, update this package first, there's a new patch version!" Oh, come on!

That's why we've marked this job as allowed to fail. It needs a lot of discipline at this point: after you ignore the warning, push the bugfix to production and get some coffee to calm your nerves, you should revisit the failed job and update the dependency.

Another scenario in which you want this job to be able to fail is when there is a conflict between your dependencies that prevents you from updating one of them. You can contact the maintainer and wait for them to resolve it. But at this point, it needs twice as much discipline: in my experience, if the allowed-to-fail jobs keep failing for too long, they tend to get ignored and the dependency debt accumulates.

A somewhat reliable way of dealing with these situations is to regularly add review of dependencies to your planning process. In every iteration, have a developer take a look into it. Take turns so that it does not become a one man's burden. When done regularly, it shouldn't take more than a couple of minutes, which is a bargain in exchange for being up-to-date with latest bug and security patches.

(While you're at it, I'd also recommend requiring the roave/security-advisories package which prevents you from updating to versions that are known to contain security vulnerabilities.)

Have you found a tpyo in the post? Please submit a pull request with a fix :)

Hello, I am Jiří Pudil

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I am a full-stack web developer from Brno, Czech Republic. I contribute to open-source projects, write a technical blog, and speak at meetups and conferences.

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